Live Blog: Turkish Presidential and Parliamentary Elections 2023
More than 64 million Turkish citizens are eligible to vote in the polls. They will choose between three presidential candidates and 36 parties in 87 electoral districts.
Voters will decide the fate of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his ruling Justice and Development Party, AKP as they face a united democratic opposition.
Polls suggested the race for the presidency between Erdogan and his rival, Republican People's Party leader Kemal Kilicdaroglu will be tight. The contest between their respective People's Alliance and Nation Alliance coalitions for a majority in parliament is also thought to be neck-and-neck.
After another opposition candidate Muharrem Ince withdrew from the presidential race, the only other candidate is ultra-nationalist Sinan Ogan from the ATA Alliance.
Tensions marred the election campaign with several attacks on opposition rallies, party buildings and offices.
President Erdogan's government has strong control over the police, army and judiciary and concerns have been expressed about the potential for electoral fraud. Rights groups have also warned that the government's control over the internet and social media threatens electoral fairness.
Erdogan has been ruling the country since 2002, first as prime minister and then as president. Initially reforms were introduced and the economy boomed, but in recent years the economic situation has become dire and rights and freedoms have come under sustained attack.